What is Accounting and Its Objectives – 7 Important Types of Accounting

Accounting is the practice of recording the financial activities of firms and businesses. Accounting involves summarizing, analyzing, and reporting these transactions to oversight organizations, regulatory agencies, and tax collection organizations. The financial statements used in accounting, which give a summary of economic events over an accounting period, summarize a company’s operations, financial condition, and cash flows. So let’s study “what is accounting and its objectives” in this article.

What is Accounting and Its Objectives – 7 Important Types of Accounting

Table of Contents

What is Accounting and Its Objectives?

What is Accounting?

Accounting is an important practical part of every organization. Small businesses, for instance, might be run by an accountant or bookkeeper, whereas larger companies might have substantial finance departments with plenty of staff. The information supplied by multiple accounting streams, including managerial and cost accounting, assists management in making sound business decisions.

Accounting is essential in any organization or corporation for decision-making, budgeting, and measuring economic success. Basic accounting needs can be handled by a bookkeeper, but more involved or complex accounting duties should be left to a Certified Public Accountant (CPA).

Two essential types of accounting for businesses are cost accounting and managerial accounting. Managerial accounting assists business owners in determining the appropriate price for a product, whereas managerial accounting supports management teams in making business decisions. When preparing financial statements, qualified accountants follow the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) rules.

Accounting plays a significant role in operations management, fundraising, external compliance, and strategic planning. Accounting is crucial for running a business because it makes it simpler to keep track of income and expenses, makes sure legal compliance, and gives decision-makers like investors, management, and the availability of quantitative financial data to the government.

Objectives of Accounting

Accounting facilitates the methodical maintenance of transaction records and other financial data.

  • It gives a broad idea of the chances of success, failure, or loss.
  • The method benefits management by guiding them to make the best decisions possible. The financial health of an organization is also determined by accounting.
  • In addition, it helps with staff productivity evaluation and communicating and presenting accounting information to the user.
  • Accounting contributes most significantly to any company by reducing the risk of fraud and loss.
  • To make sure the business receives the money it is owed and continues to be profitable, the owner may track and record several financial transactions pertaining to payments owed to the firm and receipts earned by the business.

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Advantages of Accounting

Financial Management

Corporate accounting gives businesses a complete picture of their financial situation, enabling management to make wise choices regarding resource allocation, investment, and risk control.

Cost Control

Corporate accounting aids businesses in cost management and efficiency identification, which can boost profitability and competitiveness.

Improved Decision-Making

Corporate accounting helps managers make better decisions by providing timely and pertinent financial information.

Investor Confidence

Corporate accounting can help investors feel more confident and draw in investment by providing accurate and transparent financial reporting.


Compliance with legal and regulatory obligations, such as tax legislation and financial reporting standards, is facilitated by corporate accounting.

Performance Evaluation

Corporate accounting offers a framework for assessing an organization’s performance across all of its business segments, which can assist management in deciding how to allocate resources and formulate a plan.

Disadvantages of accounting


It can be expensive to keep correct accounting records, particularly for smaller businesses that may lack the funding to engage specialized accounting staff or invest in advanced accounting systems.


Corporate accounting is governed by a number of regulations, and breaking one of them can lead to both legal repercussions and reputational harm.

Lack of accuracy

The financial statements may have errors if the accounting records are not kept up to date, which could cause management or investors to make bad decisions.


Accurately recording and reporting financial data is challenging in corporate accounting, especially for large organizations with several subsidiaries or business divisions.

Limited transparency

It may be challenging for stakeholders to fully comprehend the financial health of a company because corporate accounting does not always provide comprehensive transparency regarding a corporation’s financial status.

Types of Accounting

Financial Accounting

  • Focus: Impress the external crowd – investors and creditors.
  • Objective: Paint an accurate picture of the organization’s financial health through standardized statements.

Managerial Accounting

  • Focus: Inside scoop for the management team.
  • Objective: Offer detailed financial insights to help plan, make decisions, and keep the ship sailing smoothly.

Cost Accounting

  • Focus: Pinpoint the cost of making things.
  • Objective: Assist companies in managing costs like financial ninjas for better profitability.

Tax Accounting

  • Focus: Play by the tax rules.
  • Objective: Ensure organizations pay their dues while dancing around tax efficiency.

Forensic Accounting

  • Focus: Financial detective work.
  • Objective: Dig into financial mysteries and expose any shifty business.

Management Accounting

  • Focus: Helping the bosses plan and decide.
  • Objective: Shed light on costs, budgets, and overall financial game plans.

Project Accounting

  • Focus: Keeping an eye on the financial side of projects.
  • Objective: Make sure projects stay on budget and hit their financial targets.


So, in short, what is accounting and its objectives? It’s the financial backbone that not only keeps a business running smoothly but also propels it towards growth. By maintaining accuracy, supporting decisions, ensuring compliance, and evaluating performance, accounting becomes the silent yet powerful force driving businesses forward.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

In simple terms, accounting is the process of tracking and managing financial activities. From income and expenses to assets and liabilities, it’s the methodical organization of monetary details. This ensures that a company’s financial health is not just a puzzle but a clear, comprehensible picture.

Accounting serves as the financial compass for businesses, with five main purposes.

  • Firstly, it systematically records transactions, ensuring accuracy.
  • Secondly, it aids decision-making by providing essential insights.
  • Thirdly, it fulfills legal obligations, maintaining compliance.
  • Fourthly, it evaluates performance, highlighting strengths and areas for improvement.
  • Lastly, it facilitates effective communication of financial information, fostering transparency and trust within and outside the organization.

The very first person to publish complete details on the double-entry accounting method was Luca Pacioli (c. 1447–1517).

The process of identifying, assessing, and documenting a company’s accounting events is known as the accounting cycle. The process follows a regular sequence of eight steps that start when a transaction happens and finish when it’s included in the financial statements and the books are closed.

A financial statement consists of the following five elements: assets, liabilities, equity, income, and expenses. It is crucial for a firm to monitor the distinct data points that are specific to each of these categories.

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